During the design of any construction project, special attention is paid to the foundation. Before its development, the geological characteristics of the building site are analyzed, the scale and parameters of the structure are estimated.
Based on the collected data, engineers choose the best option. In most cases, it is advisable to use a strip buried foundation.
This base is very popular in modern construction. It is erected around the entire perimeter of the building and under the load-bearing walls. The construction is highly laborious with the use of special equipment. The design features include:
This type of foundation is an ideal solution for the construction of massive buildings, both on an industrial scale and in private housing construction.
On heterogeneous soils within the fenced area, different subsidence rates are often observed. A fully buried foundation is the best option in this case.
Many developers give preference to a full-depth tape, since in this case there is an additional possibility of arranging a basement, where the foundation walls act as internal basement partitions.
At the initial stage, the contractor needs to prepare a site for construction work:
This process involves digging trenches, the dimensions of which are determined by the parameters of the foundation. For this stage of construction, as a rule, an excavator with a small bucket is used. For small volumes, manual digging of trenches is permissible, which is characterized by high labor intensity and duration.
After the specified depth has been reached, the walls and bottom of the trench should be cleaned, leveled and tamped.
The formwork is usually made of wooden panels with a thickness of 40-50 mm. Additional rigidity can be achieved with small stops and wedges.
Reinforced frame is the most important element of any reinforced concrete structure, allowing to give strength to the entire base. Its characteristics and the diameter of the reinforcement used are determined by design calculations.
The connection of the reinforcing rods is carried out with a special knitting wire, since the welding connection leads to a weakening of the structure.
The key stage in the construction of a full-depth strip foundation is concrete pouring. It is started only after the device of the formwork and the reinforced frame.
Concrete is laid in layers. Each layer is compacted with a deep vibrator. The rammer removes unwanted air voids and distributes the concrete mass evenly over the entire area.
In 7-10 days after pouring the concrete mixture, the formwork is dismantled. During this period, concrete is gaining strength. Sometimes, due to the peculiarities of weather conditions, the process takes longer.
After removing the formwork panels, the walls of the foundation are waterproofed. For this purpose, bituminous mastic, roofing material is well suited. Usually the type of waterproofing is indicated in the project itself.
Upon completion of the waterproofing, all existing voids are filled. Clay, sand or remnants of previously dug soil are used, but not the fertile soil layer.
Backfilling should be done with care to avoid voids and damage previously installed waterproofing. The material placed in the voids is well compacted using rammers.
The advantages of the type of foundation under consideration include:
The negative aspects include:
The strip foundation of full penetration, although you can build on your own if you have a project and skills in carrying out concrete work, it is better to contact a construction organization. A competent approach to each stage of construction and their high-quality execution will allow you to count on long-term operation of the structure
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